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The puff pastries can be filled and assembled to form Profiterols, Croquenbouche (stacks of profiteroles glued together with caramel), gâteau St.-Honoré, etc.

In Italy, Puff Pastries filled with custard are often stacked in a tall pyramidal shape. Chocolate is poured on the stack before being decorated with whipped cream.
Puff Pastries can also be filled with savory mousse or cream to make delicious appetizers.
In the picture, Choux are filled with Salmon Mousse.
In spite of the simple preparation, the Puff Pastry (Pâte à Choux) requires a few precautions:
1) The quantity of egg should be just right. If the recipe calls for 4 eggs, I add the first 3 and the last a little at the time in order to control the consistency. Too much egg will cause the panade to be too liquid and unable to hold its shape when is baked.
2) The panade needs to be cooked carefully until smooth and dry. If it is undercooked, the ingredients may be unevenly mixed, and it could retain too much moisture.
3) Make the preparation very quickly. Piping and baking the panade immediately while still warm will help lightness and expansion.
4) Bake the pastries until they are crisp, dry, and golden. If the pastries are undercooked, they could collapse when removed from the oven. Also, it is preferable to cool the pastries slowly in the oven.
1 cup (230 cc) water
4 tablespoons (55 g) unsalted butter
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup (140 g) all purpose flour
4 large eggs
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Bake for about 35 minutes or until well puffed and golden. Shut off the heat , open the oven half way, and let the puffs cool slowly and dry for about 1 hour. The puffs may collapse if they are cooled too fast.
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Place the water, butter, and salt in a heavy saucepan. Bring to a boil. When the butter is completely melted, remove from heat and add the flour all at once.
Mix rapidly with a spatula . . . .
. . . . until fully combined.
Place the mixture on the stove on low heat, and dry mix it for about 5 to 6 minutes. The dough should be soft, not sticky.
Transfer to a bowl and spread to cool. Let the dough cool for at least 5 minutes.
*** NOTE ***
If the bottom of the pan is covered with a thin whitish crust, this is an indication that the dough is sufficiently dried.
Add the eggs one at the time . . .
. . . . mixing thoroughly after each one is added . . . .
Add the last egg a little at a time to control consistency in case the eggs are too big.
puff pastry pate a choux xx10
. . . . so that the dough is smooth.
The dough should be smooth, shiny, and as thick and heavy as mayonnaise. Preheat oven to 370 F (190 C).
Using a pastry bag filled with the dough or a spoon, make small balls about 1 -inch  (2 - 3 cm ) in size.
Cover a large cookie sheet with parchment paper. Fill a pastry bag with the dough.
Brush the top with the egg wash.
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Basics >> Puff Pastry (Pâte  à Choux)

Puff Pastry  or Cream Puff (Pâte  à Choux in French) are improperly called bigne’ in Italian. The Puff Pastries (Pâte à Choux) are a simple type of pastry that can be easily transformed in many, sometime spectacular, preparations.

The cream puff is believed to have originated in Italy. When Catherine de Medici moved to France in 1533, she brought her entire court with her to France, including her chefs. Her head chef, named Panterelli, made gâteaux with a dried hot dough he invented, called pâte à Panterelli. The pastry later became know as pâte à Popelin, and popelins were a form of cake made in the Middle Ages in the shape of large puffs. Perfected by Avice and later by Antoine Carême, this dough evolved into the puff pastry used today.

The Puff Pastry dough (Choux Pastry)  called panade, is the only dough that is cooked before being baked. It starts with simple dough of water, butter, flour, and eggs. During baking, the eggs help form a thin crust on the outside, while the steam trapped inside expands giving to the pastry the typical puffed hollow shape.

Pâte  à Choux
Puff Pastry (Cream Puff) Bigne’